Designing High-Donicity Anions for Rechargeable Potassium Superoxide/Peroxide Batteries

The Need

Over the past two decades, the advancement of metal-O2 batteries has been hindered by issues of instability, reversibility, and poor energy efficiency, primarily due to the instability of superoxide in the presence of Li+ and Na+ ions. Existing solutions such as Li-O2 and Na-O2 batteries have faced limitations, leading to the need for a more stable and efficient alternative. The introduction of potassium superoxide (KO2) in K-O2 batteries presents a promising solution, offering stability, reversibility, and energy efficiency previously unattainable in metal-O2 battery technologies.

The Technology

K-O2 batteries utilize the one-electron redox process of O2/potassium superoxide (KO2), providing enhanced stability and efficiency. By adopting a high-donicity anion additive in the ether-based electrolyte, KO2/peroxide (K2O2) conversion is significantly enhanced, leading to improved utilization rates and electrode passivation retardation. This innovation allows for full charging back of K2O2 through a solution-mediated pathway without the need for electrocatalysts, ensuring prolonged battery lifespan and high energy efficiency.

Commercial Applications:

  • Grid-scale energy storage systems
  • Electric vehicles (EVs) and hybrid vehicles
  • Portable electronics and consumer devices
  • Aerospace and defense applications
  • Renewable energy storage solutions


  • Enhanced stability and reversibility: Overcomes limitations of existing metal-O2 battery technologies
  • High energy efficiency: Delivers energy efficiencies exceeding 84.4%
  • Prolonged lifespan: Demonstrates a lifespan of over 1440 hours with minimal degradation
  • Cost-effectiveness: Utilizes abundant elements, low-cost materials, and high energy densities
  • Versatile applications: Suitable for a wide range of industries and energy storage needs, from grid-scale applications to portable electronics.

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