Methods to improve the jitter and time walk of integrated constant fraction discriminators

The Need

Accurate measurements of energy and time-of-arrival of photons, particles, or ionizing radiation are crucial for identifying individual particles and enhancing spatial and temporal resolution in various systems. Technologies such as Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR), positron emission tomography (PET), high energy particle colliders, and X-ray imaging continually demand improved energy and timing resolution to advance their capabilities.

The Technology

Solid-state detectors play a pivotal role in radiation transducers, converting ionizing radiation into electric charge, electric current, or light signals. Unlike gas-filled detectors or scintillators, solid-state detectors offer small form-factors enabling high packing density and large channel counts, along with reduced power consumption. These detectors rely on electron-hole pair production, and their readout circuits typically consist of a low noise pre-amplifier, pulse shaping filter, and timing discriminator.

Commercial Applications

  • Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) systems
  • Positron emission tomography (PET) scanners
  • High-energy particle colliders
  • X-ray imaging devices
  • Radiation transducers in medical and industrial equipment


  • Enhanced spatial and temporal resolution in various systems
  • High packing density and large channel counts due to small form-factor
  • Reduced power consumption compared to other detector types
  • Accurate identification of individual particles
  • Improved energy and timing resolution for advanced applications

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