Three-dimensional cellular automation codes for solidification microstructure and porosity simulation of multi-component alloys

The Need

Porosity formation during the solidification of aluminum-based alloys, induced by hydrogen gas and alloy shrinkage, presents a significant challenge for industries relying on high-performance solidification products such as castings, welds, and additively manufactured components. This issue adversely affects mechanical and physical properties, including ultimate strength, elongation, corrosion resistance, and fatigue resistance. The accurate prediction and control of porosity defects are imperative for enhancing product quality, reducing production costs, and advancing the field of integrated computational materials engineering (ICME) for solidification products.

The Technology

The Ohio STate Unviversity is pleased to present our groundbreaking Three-Dimensional Cellular Automaton (CA) model, a pioneering solution that simulates the formation and evolution of solidifying microstructure and microporosity during the solidification of a binary Al-Si alloy. This advanced model incorporates both hydrogen-induced porosity and shrinkage porosity, as well as dendrite growth, providing a comprehensive understanding of the complex dynamics involved. The model is validated through wedge die casting experiments and X-ray micro computed tomography (XMCT) measurements, establishing it as a vital tool in ICME for the design and manufacturing of castings products.

Commercial Applications

  • Foundry Optimization: Improve casting quality by minimizing porosity defects, ensuring higher-quality and more reliable aluminum-based products.
  • Welding Quality Enhancement: Enhance the integrity of aluminum alloy welds by mitigating porosity risks during solidification, ensuring weld strength and longevity.
  • Additive Manufacturing Precision: Elevate the quality of additively manufactured components by precisely controlling porosity formation, leading to structurally sound and defect-free final products.
  • ICME-Driven Design: Integrate the validated porosity model into ICME frameworks for location-specific microstructure models and mechanical property predictions, revolutionizing the design and manufacturing processes of solidification products.
  • Quality Assurance in Die Casting: Implement rigorous quality assurance measures in die casting processes, reducing the occurrence of porosity and enhancing the overall reliability of cast components.


  • Enhanced Product Reliability: Minimize porosity-related defects, ensuring that aluminum-based products meet stringent quality standards and exhibit superior reliability.
  • Cost Reduction: Proactively address porosity formation during the design and manufacturing stages, reducing the need for costly rework and post-production corrections.
  • Optimized Manufacturing Processes: Streamline foundry, welding, and additive manufacturing processes by leveraging insights from the CA model, leading to increased efficiency and reduced waste.
  • ICME Integration: Seamlessly integrate the validated porosity model into the broader framework of ICME, fostering a holistic and data-driven approach to materials design and manufacturing.
  • Precision and Consistency: Achieve greater precision and consistency in the production of aluminum-based components, resulting in higher performance and customer satisfaction.

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